Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations, and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.

Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit. Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term “fitness” increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten. A modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine’s ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.

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Photo credit from: To Track Your Fitness Progress

There are specific training that athletes prepare to perform well in their sports. It includes the following:

It includes the following:

100 m sprint: in a sprint, the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training.

Middle distance running: athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training. The hard working muscles are at their peak for a longer period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time.   Agility Training

♦ Marathon: in this case, the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum.

Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness, to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races.

Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete. This is because sand collapses beneath the foot softening the landing. Sand training is an effective way to lose weight and become fit as its proven you need more effort (one and a half times more) to run on the soft sand than on a hard surface.

Aquajogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones. The water supplies minimal impact to muscles and bones which is good for those recovering from injury. Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise (the deeper you are the greater the force needed to pull your leg through).

♦ Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start.

Being at a high level of physical fitness can be achieved through a combination of daily physical activity, exercise, and a healthy diet. The 11 components of physical fitness play an important role in one’s daily activities. Improving upon all areas of physical fitness will help you to improve daily activities and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

There are 11 components of physical fitness that plays an important role in one’s daily activities. It will help you to improve your daily activities and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

The 11 Components of Physical Fitness includes:

1. Agility –

The ability to stop, start and change directions quickly. Agility is a skill-related component of physical fitness.

2. Balance –

Controlling body positions while standing still or moving. Balance is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Balance can be tested by standing on one leg with eyes closed for 30 seconds on each leg or by performing the Y-Balance Test.

3. Body Composition –

Body Composition can be measured by skinfold calipers, waist-to-hip ratios, circumference measurements, bioelectric impedance, and hydrostatic weighing. Doing daily cardiovascular exercise and strength training, along with a healthy diet, will help to reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass.

4. Cardiovascular Endurance –

Cardiovascular endurance can be measured indoors by performing a 3 minute step test or by stress tests on a treadmill or stationary bike. Cardiovascular endurance can also be measured by field tests such as Cooper’s 12-minute Run, the 1.5 Mile Run, the 600 Yard Walk/Run, or a Shuttle Run. However, some disadvantages to outdoor field tests include wind, humidity, and temperature.

5. Coordination –

This usually consists of upper and lower body movements being performed at the same time.  Coordination can be improved by performing exercises that require the individual to use upper body muscle groups and lower body muscle groups at the same time.

6. Flexibility –

Flexibility is a health-related component of physical fitness that plays a very important role in the functioning of all individuals especially athletes.

7. Muscular Endurance –

Using muscles repetitively without fatiguing for an extended period of time. Muscular Endurance can be measured by a 60-second push-up test or 60 second half sit-up or crunch test.

8. Muscular Strength –

Muscular strength has also been defined as the maximum pull or push that can be exerted one time by a muscle group. Muscular Strength is a health-related component of physical fitness. Muscular Strength can be measured by performing a 1 repetition maximum (RM) test or a 10 RM test on a chest press in order to test upper body strength.

9. Power –

The ability to use muscle strength quickly. Power can be increased by three general ways: increase the force-producing capabilities of muscles; decrease the time it takes to move across a distance due to faster speed; and increase the distance a force acts on one’s body.

10. Reaction Time –

How quickly an individual responds to a stimulus. Reaction time can be tested in a variety of ways. A simple test is a Reaction Time Ruler Test or a Reaction Time Tester

11. Speed –

Performing a movement or covering a distance in a short period of time. Speed can be measured by timing a 40-yard dash, 30-meter sprint, or the Illinois Agility Test.

It is important to know that all components of physical fitness can be improved no matter what stage of life. Children, teens, adults, and the elderly will see improvements in all aspects of physical fitness if the proper exercises and training techniques are implemented into daily exercise routines. Once proper training techniques are established, then exercise consistency, mental focus, and discipline will be most important for improving individuals’ overall physical fitness levels.

SOURCES: Physical fitness 11 Components of Physical Fitness